Drinking water sources and processing


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Water is a very important necessities of life. This is because water always we use in every day. So that whatever activity we use a lot of water. So water is a necessity which is also vital.

Water sources are also a lot of us find. These water sources should we keep and preserve would not be broken up for good. Do not do things that may endanger the safety with him. Eg disposing of waste in any place. It is very dangerous for those who accidentally consume them. So before we want to keep and preserve it, we first determines what are the sources of water available.



Drinking water sources


1. Groundwater, the water from a deep groundwater has dropped rain many decades, hundreds of thousands or sometimes millions last year. Soil and rock layers naturally filter the ground water at a high level of clarity before it is pumped to the treatment plant. Such water may occur as springs, artesian wells, or can be accessed from boreholes or wells. Deep groundwater is usually of high bacteriological quality (ie, pathogenic bacteria or the pathogenic protozoa are typically absent), but the water is usually rich in dissolved solids, especially carbonates and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. Depending on the strata through which water flowed, other ions may also be present including chloride and bicarbonate. There may be a need to iron or manganese content of the water to reduce it pleasant for drinking, cooking, washing and use. Disinfection may also be necessary. Where ground water supplement is practiced, it is equivalent to the lower surface for treatment purposes.

2. Upland lakes and tanks, typically located in the headwaters of river systems, storage reservoirs are usually sited above any human habitation and may be surrounded by a protective zone to restrict the opportunities for contamination. Bacteria and pathogen levels are usually low, but some bacteria, protozoa or algae present. Uplands where forests or peat, humic acids can be colored water. Many storage sources have low pH required configuration.


3. Rivers, canals and low land reservoirs: Low land area of water is a significant bacterial load and also algae, suspended solids and a variety of dissolved substances.

4. Atmospheric water generation is a new technology that can provide high quality drinking water by extracting water from the air by cooling the air and water vapor thus condenses.
5. Rainwater harvesting or fog collection that take water from the atmosphere can be used primarily in areas with significant dry seasons and in areas which experience fog even though there is little rain.

Drinking water treatment process


A. Containment and pumping - The majority of water must be pumped from its source or direction in pipes or holding tanks. To avoid adding contaminants to the water, this physical infrastructure is made of suitable material and so constructed that accidental contamination does not occur.
Cell. Screening (see screen filter) - The first step in cleaning surface water to remove large debris such as sticks, leaves, trash and other large particles that can interfere with subsequent purification steps. Most deep groundwater does not need screening before other purification steps.

3. Store - The water of the river can also be stored in side tanks for periods of between a few days and a few months to allow for natural biological purification to take place. It is especially important if treatment is by slow sand filter. Reservoirs also a buffer against short period of drought or water to be maintained during transition pollution incidents in the river source.

4. Pre-conditioning - very steeped in water hardness salts are dealt with of soda ash (sodium carbonate) to speed up calcium from the use of common ion effect.

5. Pré chlorination - In many plants the incoming water is cold the growth of fouling organisms on the pipe work and tanks is reduced. Because of the potential adverse quality effects (see chlorine below), it has largely ceased. [Citation needed]

Widely varied techniques are available to the fine solids, micro-organisms and some dissolved organic and inorganic material removed. The selection process is based on the quality of treated water, the cost of the treatment process and quality standards expected of the water process.

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