Formula for Sodium Carbonate


Bookmark and Share
Formula for Sodium Carbonate - Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) is a compound that has molecular weight of 106, white, crystalline solid form and others in powder form which is hygroscopic. Trade name Sodium carbonate is soda ash, washing soda or soda crystals.

The manufacture of sodium carbonate

The basic ingredients for the manufacture of sodium carbonate is ammonia, lime and salt.

Various kinds of manufacturing process of Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate manufacturing process there are two kinds of synthetic and natural. Synthetically composed of Le Blanc and Solvay process while naturally referred to as the Natural. The explanation about the process of making sodium carbonate as follows:

a. Le Blanc process
This process is based on roasting salt cake (crust salt) with carbon and limestone in rotary kiln and after it hardens the results with water. The crude product of this reaction called black ash (black ash). Hardening done on time cold, the hardening takes place partly sulfide hydrolysis. It then changed again into carbonate through processing with a gas containing carbon dioxide comes from the furnace black ash. Sodium carbonate produced, concentrated so as to produce sodium carbonate then dried or calcined. (Austin, 1996)

Reaction:
2NaCl (s) + H2SO4 (l) ⇔ NaHSO4 (s) + 2HCL (g)
Na2SO4 (s) + 4 C (s) ⇔ Na2S (s) + 4 CO (g)
Na2S (s) + CaCO3 (s) ⇔ Na2CO3 (s) + CAS (s)
(Mc - Ketta, 1978)

b. Solvay Process
Solvay process using the brine (NaCl), limestone (CaCO3), as raw material and using ammonia as reagent cycle. The reactor used is Packed tower. Sodium carbonate produced in the form of light sodium carbonate and dense sodium carbonate in accordance with the needs of factory use it.

Reactions - reactions that occur are as follows:
CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 ... .. ... ... ... (1)
CaO + H2O → Ca (OH) 2. ... ... ... ... (2)
NaCl + H2O + NH3 ↔ NaCl + NH4OH .. ... ... ... ... (3)
2 NH4OH + CO2 ↔ (NH4) 2CO3 + H2O .. ... ... ... ... (4)
(NH4) 2CO3 + CO2 + H2O ↔ 2 NH4HCO3 ... ... ... ... (5)
2 NH4HCO3 ↔ 2 + 2 NaCl NaHCO3 + 2 NH4Cl ... ... ... ... (6)
2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 ... ... ... ... (7)
2 NH4Cl + Ca (OH) 2 → CaCl2 + 2 NH3 + 2 H2O ... ... ... ... (8)
(Anonymous, 2003)

If the comparison between Le Blanc and Solvay process, then Solvay process Solvay process more profitable because running at low temperature, the reaction runs on liquid-gas phase, conversion produced large, and the resulting higher quality Sodium. The product from the Solvay process can be resold.

c. Natural Process
Raw materials used in this natural process is burkeite crystal (Na2CO3.2Na2SO4) which has been separated from impuritasnya. Crude burkeite crystal consisting of Li2NaPO4 and Na2CO3.2Na2SO4 separated while the filtrate was concentrated into Na2SO4.10H2O (Glauber's salt).

Glauber's salt is filtered to leave the mother liquor Sodium carbonate-rich. Pure soda crystals obtained with cooled in a cooling tank, then filtered (Filter) and then enter the dryer (dryer).

Overall reaction:

Na2CO3.2Na2SO4 (s) ---> Na2CO3 (s) + 2 Na2SO4 (aq)
(Keyes, 1966)

Here are the advantages and disadvantages of. The second process in the review of both these aspects:

Comparative technical and economic aspects of the process

Solvay and Le Blanc :

                                      Le Blanc process      Solvay Process
- Technical Aspects
a. Process
1. raw materials             Solid NaCl               Saturated NaCl, stone            
2. Byproduct                  H2SO4                    lime / CaCO3 CaCl2
3. Purity products          CAS                        97%
4. Corrosion material     96.8%

b. Operation                 High                         Medium
1. Temperature            High                         70 º C
2. Pressure                   High                         4.5 atm

- Aspects of the
environmental impact    High                         Medium

(Kirk & Othmer, 1993)

Usefulness of Sodium Carbonate

In the world of commerce, sodium carbonate is widely used for:
a. In the glass industry
b. Used for drugs - drugs
c. Used in food ingredients
d. Used as detergents, water treatment
e. In the field of pulp and paper industry
f. In the field of textile indistri

The Physical and Chemical Properties of Raw Materials and Products

Raw Materials

a. Ammonia
Physical:
- Molecular formula: NH 3
- Molecular Weight: 17.0305 g / mol
- Boiling Point, 1 atm: - 33.40 C
- Melting point, 1 atm: - 77.70 C
- Critical Pressure: 1657 psi
- Critical Temperature: 1330C
- Gibbs free energy (25 ° C): -16 401 kj / mol
- Heat capacity (25 ° C): 1.2867 cal / mol 0 C
- Solubility, 00 C: 89.9 gr / 100 gr H2O
- Solubility, 860 C: 7.4 gr / 100 gr H2O
- Density, 1 atm: 0.7708 gr / ml
- Specific Heat, 150 C: 1.310 cal / mol
(Kirk and Othmer, 1979)

Chemical properties:

- At high temperatures when oxidized with KMnO4 produces nitrogen and water:
2 NH3 + 2 KMnO4 → 2 KOH + 2 MnO2 + 2 H2O + N2
- Similarly, oxidation by chlorine:
8 NH3 + 3 Cl2 → N2 + 6 NH4Cl
- With the catalyst Pt-Rhodium oxidised to nitrogen oxides and water to produce nitric acid:
4 NH3 + 5 O3 → 4 NO + 6 H2O
2 NO + O2 → 2 NO2
3 NO2 + 2 H2O → 2 HNO3 + NO

b. Salt

Physical:
- Molecular formula: NaCl
- Molecular weight: 58.45 g / mol
- Melting point, 1 atm: 800.40 C
- Boiling Point, 1 atm: 14 130 C
- Density: 1.13 g / ml
- Gibbs free energy (25 ° C): -201 320 kj / mol
- Heat capacity (25 ° C): 1.8063 cal / mol 0 C
- Solubility, 00C: 35.7 gr / 100 gr H2O
- Solubility, 1000C: 39.8 gr / 100 gr H2O
- Vapor pressure, 1 atm: 14 650 C
- The heat of vaporization, 1 atm: 40 810 cal / mol
(Kirk and Othmer, 1979)

Chemical properties:

- With silver nitrate to form silver chloride precipitate
NaCl + AgNO3 → NaNO3 + AgCl
- With lead acetate to form a white precipitate of lead chloride
NaCl + PbAc → NAAC + PbCl2

c. Limestone

Physical properties:

- Molecular formula: CaCO3
- Molecular Weight: 100.09 g / mol
- Melting point, 1 atm: 25 700 C
- Boiling Point, 1 atm: 28 500 C
- Density, 1 atm: 2.711 g / ml
- Gibbs free energy (25 ° C): -1.129 million kj / mol
- Heat capacity (25 ° C): -5.896 cal/mol0 C
- Solubility, 250C: 0.0014 gr / 100 gr H2O
- Solubility, 1000 C: 0.002 gr / 100 gr H2O
- The heat of vaporization, 1 atm: 12 700 cal / mol
- Size: 30 mesh
(Kirk and Othmer, 1979)

Chemical properties:

- Diluted hydrochloric acid occurs due to decomposition of the foaming
carbon dioxide is released
CO3
= + 2 H + → CO2 + H2O
- The barium chloride solution a white precipitate barium
carbonic
CO3
= + Ba +2 → BaCO3

Sodium carbonate product

Physical properties:
- Molecular formula: Na2CO3
- Molecular weight: 106 g / mol
- Melting point, 1 atm: 8510 C
- Solubility, 0 0 C: 7.1 g/100 g H2O
- Solubility, 100 0 C: 485 g/100 g H2O
- Density, 200 C: 2.533 g / ml
- Gibbs free energy (25 ° C): -1,128,229 kj / mol
- Partial pressure, 30 0 C: 388.08 psi
- Specific Heat, 30 0 C: 0.89 cal / mol
- Heat of vaporization: 7000 cal / mol
- Heat capacity, 25 0 C: 4.3350 cal / mol 0 C
(Kirk and Othmer, 1979)


Review process in general
By comparing these aspects, the selected process
a more commercially profitable by the Solvay process.
His reaction is as follows:
The reactions that occur in the kiln:
CaCO3 (s) → CaO (s) + CO2 (g) ΔHR 298 = 42596.60 kcal / kmol
CaO (s) + H2O (l) → Ca (OH) 2 (aq) ΔHR 298 = -26134.46 kcal / kmol
The reactions that occur in the converter:
NaCl (s) + H2O (l) + NH3 (g) → NH4OH (aq) + NaCl (aq)
ΔHR 298 = -262,513.02 kcal / kmol
The reaction in the reactor:
2 NH4OH + CO2 ↔ (NH4) 2CO3 + H2O
ΔHR 298 = -2,674,95 kcal / kmol
(NH4) 2CO3 + CO2 + H2O ↔ 2 NH4HCO3
ΔHR298 = 34981.13 kcal / kmol
2 NH4HCO3 ↔ 2 + 2 NaCl NaHCO3 + 2 NH4Cl
140,959.159 ΔHR =- 298 kcal / kmol
The reactor used is a packed tower type reactor.
The reaction in calciner:
2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2
ΔHR =- 3501.764 298 kcal / kmol

Tag : sodium carbonate, formula for sodium carbonate, sodium carbonate chemical formula, what is sodium carbonate, sodium carbonate ph, sodium carbonate for water treatment, sodium carbonate formula

{ 1 Comment... read them below or add one }

Axis Thermal Engineering Company said...

For controlling the pollution most of the machineries are designed with itself such as furnace are designed to control pollution.

Post a Comment