Facts of chlorine


Bookmark and Share
About Chlorine

The use of chlorine by the pulp and paper industry is the manifestation of the lack of attention industrialists participated in the development of sustainable, environmentally sound development. Too many things to be sacrificed. It's all very disturbing society, as it undermines livelihood of many people. Some statements from the government and industrialists about chlorine, for us are something that is misleading for the sustainability of environmentally sound development. Therefore, in order to avoid misunderstanding about the chlorine, so we try to inform some of the things we understand it based on the information we have obtained from several sources.

History of the chlorine

Over a century, chlorine used to bleach paper, because paper that is produced naturally (without the use of the chemical elements of human engineering) light brown. Generally, pulp and paper mill waste dump chlorine into the water and make a lot of dangerous compounds such as dioxins (hazardous chemical compounds belonging to the organ chlorine group). Chlorine is so dangerous for the environment, thus making community groups in the developed world to exert pressure and strong protest to factories that use chlorine. In most of the developed world, and his government was already drafting legislation to cancel the use of chlorine and as a result of it.

In Sweden, other countries in Scandinavia, Canada, and Germany, are now enacted legislation as well as law enforcement (law enforcement) for pulp and paper mills. No doubt, many companies in the country became an independent industrial chlorine (chlorine free), because it is more in accordance with the market, more effective as a long-term strategy, and naturally become more economical. Moreover, people can easily identify and recognize the harm caused by chlorine.

First, chlorine is used as a poison gas in World War I by Germany (Hitler).

Characteristic chlorine

Actually, chlorine is a chemical element (Cl) regular on the horizon, but the chlorine gas (Cl 2) is the result of the discovery and engineering of human civilization. In gaseous form, chlorine is green-yellow and in the form of amber-colored liquid. Chlorine is heavier than air. Chlorine is made of the process of electrolysis of salt water and stored in liquid or gas under pressure. So that chlorine is a chemical with the characteristic features of the highly reactive and can react with other compounds.

Chlorine has a name and characteristics: chlorine molecules (molecular chlorine), liquid chlorine (liquid chlorine): Halogen: Cl2: 70.90: 2:47 (air = 1): 4.800 mm Hg at 20 C. Characteristic structure, appearance and odor: yellow-green gas, sharp odor, offending the eye and cause watery eyes when it comes in contact in air flammable: non-flammable (non-flammable) but support combustion; famous can lead to risk of serious burns.

The use of chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element that produced the seventh highest in the world. Used as a tool of bleach in the paper industry, pulp, and textiles. for the manufacture of pesticides and herbicides, such as DDT, used for cooling equipment, pharmaceutical drugs, vinyl (PVC pipes), plastics, cleaning agents, and for water and wastewater treatment. In order to be used, chlorine is often combined with organic compounds (chemicals that have the element carbon) which usually produce organ chlorines. Organ chlorine compound itself is chemically toxic and harmful to life because it can be accumulated and persistent in the living body.


The use of chlorine in pulp production

In the pulp, paper and textiles, chlorine has two purposes: first, to bleach pulp and smoothing, and second, to drop the oxygen on sulfur compounds in black liquor (black liquor). In the pulp and paper production process, chlorine is widely used, because in the process of bleaching (bleaching), chlorine is used in the earliest levels at stage I, which is also called chlorine and chlorine dioxide stage or chlorine process, as well as post stage (stage IV), which is also called chlorine dioxide stage. From the industrial production process, chlorine and other materials out in the form of liquid and solid wastes. While the odor that comes out of all the pulp and paper industry is the result of the process of cooking wood chips with the chemical sodium / sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium / sodium sulfide (Na2S). Sulfide Na2S of elements can react directly with chlorine. In addition, chlorine gas can react violently with combustible materials or other chemicals, including carbon, and metals, which can cause an explosion. So also when reacting with hydrocarbon gases (methane, acetylene, ethane), either in liquid or gaseous, of nitrogen compounds and non-metallic compounds such as phosphorus, boron and silicon.


Toxins in the gas and liquid chlorine

Chlorine, either gaseous or liquid toxic rated high, and classified as chemicals that can result in death or permanent disability (permanent) from normal use (every day in industry) though ".

U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) states that the chlorine into a chemical group that has the potential to cause death in people who have no means of protection (Unprotected Populations) after a leak in a relatively short (Citizen Environmental Coalition). Similar opinion was one of chlorine chemistry that makes humans do not have any ability as toxic (Sax, 1984). Chlorine is a chemical classified as Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHS), or dangerous materials, which contain ammonia, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride. Chlorine gas or liquid mixtures with water, either rain water or moist air, will produce acid and hypoklorous hydrochloric harmful to humans, livestock, and vegetation.

Hazards of chlorine to humans

As mentioned above, chlorine is very harmful to human health. Chlorine, whether in the form of gas or liquid can cause permanent injury, especially death? In general, permanent injury occurs due to the chlorine gas fumes. Chlorine is the potential for the occurrence of disease in the throat, nose and respiratory tract (esophageal tract near the lungs). Acute consequences for the short term:

1. Effect of 250 ppm for 30 minutes most likely is fatal for adults.
2. High irritation occurs when the gas was inhaled and can cause skin and eye burns
3. If combined with humid air, and hypoklorus hydrochloric acid can cause inflammation of the affected body tissues. Effect of s / d 21 ppm for 30 s / d 60 minutes cause lung disease - such as pnumonitis lungs, shortness of breath, emphysema and bronchitis.

Consequences of chronic / sub lethal for the long term: For long-term effects of chlorine gas, there is a chance to grow old before his time, cause problems with the bronchus, corrosion of the teeth and the emergence of the tendency of lung diseases such as tuberculosis and emphysema.

Indication of impairment when contaminated with chlorine

0.2 ppm: 1.0 ppm itchy nose: esophagus itching or dryness, cough, difficulty breathing 1.3 ppm (for 30 minutes): severe shortness of breath and very dizzy head 5 ppm: nasal inflammation, tooth corrosion and tightness of breath. 10.0 ppm: tract respiratory (?) Became very disturbed 15-20 ppm: cough harder, felt choking, tightness in the chest 30 ppm: dangerous for the next life or to health such as severe coughing, choking, and shortness of breath and vomiting 250 ppm: most likely fatal (the dead), 1000 ppm: surely die.

That's about the facts of chlorine.


Tag: facts about chlorine, chlorine facts, the facts about chlorine, chlorine, facts about chlorine ( Cl )

{ 0 Comment... read them below or add one }

Post a Comment